How the hottest Chinese photovoltaic enterprises b

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How Chinese photovoltaic enterprises break the trade barriers between Europe and the United States

the photovoltaic industry has always been the dominant industry of China's new energy. In terms of new energy exports, the creation of plastic packaging materials that can be used for baby food and breast milk has created myths again and again. However, as the "sharp weapon" of China's new energy, the photovoltaic industry has also been hit by European and American countries again and again. At the end of September this year, euprosun, the European Photovoltaic manufacturers' Union, filed a new trade lawsuit against the EU, accusing Chinese solar panel manufacturers of receiving illegal government subsidies, which marks a further escalation of legal actions by European manufacturers against Chinese competitors. In fact, prior to this, the European Commission, at the request of the EU photovoltaic cell industry, has launched an investigation on whether Chinese photovoltaic enterprises have dumping behavior. This case involves the export of related products worth 21billion euros from China to the EU, and the amount involved is the largest in the EU's trade litigation history

in fact, the "double reaction" suffered by the photovoltaic industry this time is only a microcosm of China's export process in recent years. With the impact of the reform and opening-up policy and China's entry into the WTO in 2001, China's foreign trade has made remarkable achievements, and the trade surplus between China and the United States and China Europe has been widening. With the impact of the 2008 financial crisis and the 2010 European debt crisis, the unemployment rate in the United States and Europe remained high. The local government attributed the unemployment rate to the manufacturing recession in Europe and the United States caused by Chinese exports. In this regard, European and American countries adopted various forms of trade barriers to China's export industry during the 2008 financial crisis

leading, technical barriers to trade. It refers to that a country adopts some mandatory or non mandatory technical standards or measures on the grounds of maintaining national security or protecting human health and safety, protecting the life and health of animals and plants, protecting the ecological environment or preventing fraud, and ensuring product quality. With the development of international economic integration and the trend of trade liberalization, while the traditional tariff and non-tariff barriers are being dismantled, western developed countries have adopted technical barriers to trade to prevent the products of developing countries from entering their own markets. Technical barriers to trade have a dual nature: on the one hand, it is legitimate and reasonable. That is to take legal and reasonable technical measures to achieve the purpose of reasonable protection of human health and safety and the ecological environment; On the other hand, it has concealment and flexibility. In the specific implementation and operation, it is easy to be used by developed countries to deal with foreign products, and imported products can be made difficult and resisted at will. According to the statistics of relevant departments, at present, technical trade measures have replaced anti-dumping and become the leading non-tariff barrier faced by China's exports. The annual export volume affected by anti-dumping measures accounts for only about 1% of the annual export volume, while the export volume affected by technical trade measures has exceeded 25%, about US $billion. In recent years, 60% of China's export enterprises have encountered such barriers, including the products of many industries, including agricultural products, aquatic products, mechanical and electrical products, light textile products, chemical products, pharmaceutical products, etc. These are typical and extremely important industries in China. The products of these industries are limited by trade barriers, which will cause great economic losses to China

second, green trade barriers. Green trade barrier is a kind of non-tariff barrier, which mainly refers to the import countries in the field of international trade. In the name of protecting human health and safety, animal and plant life and health, protecting ecology and environment, relying on economic and technological advantages, through legislation, they formulate strict and stringent environmental technical standards and complex animal and plant health inspection and quarantine measures, as well as use the trade measures in the multilateral environmental protection treaties formulated by the international community, A means of restricting and sanctioning products or services from foreign countries. Because the content of green barriers is discriminatory, it is usually set by developed countries according to domestic environmental protection levels and standards, which is certainly not conducive to the export trade of developing countries. Therefore, green barriers have a great obstacle to China's export trade. At present, the green trade barriers encountered by China mainly include the following forms: Green tariff system, market access system, green technology standard system, environmental index standard system, green packaging system, environmental health and quarantine system. According to incomplete statistics, China's $8billion export commodities are affected by foreign green barriers every year, and $24billion export products are affected because they fail to meet the environmental protection packaging requirements of developed countries

third, social barriers. Social barriers are mainly trade protection measures taken under the pretext of workers' working environment and survival rights. In fact, social barriers evolved from the provisions of international conventions on social security, labor treatment, labor rights, labor standards and so on. In order to weaken the low-cost competitive advantage of products brought by enterprises in developing countries due to the reduction of labor remuneration and the deterioration of working conditions, at the 13th World Congress on occupational safety and health held in New Delhi in 1993, representatives of EU countries clearly proposed to include human rights, environmental protection and working conditions into the scope of international trade, threaten violators with trade sanctions, and urge them to improve workers' economic and social rights

in view of the frequent trade barriers and threats from European and American countries, how can China's export industry deal with and break these barriers in order to ensure the sustainable and healthy development of China's economy. At present, China's export industry is facing trade barriers, and there is a common problem of "headache cures the head, foot pain cures the foot". In this regard, China's export industry should first practice its internal skills, improve China's international competitiveness as a whole, and gradually enhance the position of Chinese products in the global value chain. On the one hand, the technical content and structure of China's export products should be improved through the automation of production process. Challenges are also rare opportunities. Through the restrictions imposed by European and American countries on the export of Chinese textiles, we can see the irrationality of our export structure and that we are still at the end of the international division of labor. By equipping a new type of automatic production line in the factory, we can improve the technical level of enterprise production and the degree of automation of operation, so as to improve the technical control of our export products, and the output tension content and structure of hydraulic cylinders. On the other hand, through the informatization of management process, it will drive the refinement and branding of China's export products. Equip the enterprise with modern information technology, improve the management level and efficiency of the enterprise, especially strengthen the quality monitoring and management of export products, combine with key technological innovation, improve the weak links and factors that restrict the product, that is, to obtain the content of the page source file, some of which include the keyword quality, constantly improve the quality of export products, and fight a "trade war" dominated by quality and brand, In order to replace the current method that some enterprises occupy the market at the cost of "price and quantity", it should be the way out for China's manufacturing industry, especially the textile industry in the future. It can be said that only relying on labor-intensive industries to support the development of enterprises has become narrower and narrower. In addition, through the intellectualization of human resources, we should maintain and enhance the comparative advantage of China's labor cost in the international industrial division of labor. At the low end of the international industrial division of labor, the labor cost advantage is mainly manifested in the scale cost advantage of labor resources, that is, the advantage of lower cost and higher efficiency of labor. However, with the rapid development of China's export processing industry and the use of a large number of untrained migrant workers, labor in the international industrial division of labor not only appears the phenomenon of "double low" (low cost and low efficiency), but also shows the trend of low cost but low efficiency. Therefore, if we do not rapidly improve the quality of our labor force, especially the quality of migrant workers, it is bound to weaken the comparative advantage of labor cost in the international industrial division. At the high end of the international industrial division of labor, the advantage of labor cost is obviously manifested in the quality advantage of labor resources

At the same time, Chinese enterprises should actively apply WTO rules to protect China's legitimate rights and interests and create a new free and fair trade order. As a member of WTO, China has undertaken corresponding and obligations, so it should enjoy corresponding rights and interests. In order to solve the problem of European and American restrictions on imports of goods to China, China should actively apply WTO rules, seek solutions under the multilateral system, and protect its legitimate rights and interests. In fact, the restrictions on the import of textiles from Europe and the United States to China completely violate the principles and provisions of the agreement on textiles and clothing of the world trade organization, and deviate from the basic spirit of trade liberalization advocated by the world trade organization to verify the torque whose lower limit of measurement is less than 20% of the upper limit of the measuring spring change experimental machine. In fact, in addition to the WTO rules, European and American countries have taken another set of measures to restrict the export of Chinese textiles from their own interests. Facing the trade censure and challenges of Europe and the United States, we can actively use the relevant rules and dispute settlement procedures of the WTO under the framework of the WTO, negotiate with Europe and the United States, and strive to promote the settlement of trade disputes between Europe and the United States in the direction conducive to safeguarding China's legitimate rights and interests. At the same time, China should cultivate as soon as possible a large number of high-quality compound talents who are proficient in WTO rules, international commercial law and patent law, as well as relevant foreign languages, in order to meet the needs of all industries and all levels to deal with trade disputes; Actively study the successful experience and failure lessons of dealing with trade disputes at home and abroad to guide enterprises' actions; Enterprises should take up legal weapons, actively respond to lawsuits and fight back with all their strength. Zhonghua glass () Department

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